Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2021-09-17 Origin: Site
There are many advantages to automated chemistry analyzer procedures. One purpose is to increase the number of tests performed by a laboratory in a given time. In clinical laboratories, labor is an expensive commodity. Through mechanization, the manual part used for any single test is minimized, which effectively reduces the cost of each test. The second purpose is to minimize the variation of experimental results. By reproducing the components as identically as possible in one process, the coefficient of variation is reduced and the reproducibility is increased. Therefore, accuracy does not depend on the skill or workload of a particular operator on a given day. This allows for better comparison of daily and weekly results. However, automation cannot correct the inherent flaws in methodology. The third advantage is that automation eliminates the potential errors of manual analysis, such as volumetric pipetting steps, result calculations and result transcription. The fourth advantage is that the instrument can use a very small amount of samples and reagents. This can reduce the blood drawn from each patient, and the use of a small amount of reagents can reduce the cost of consumables. In addition, through integration, automation helps make better use of space.In this article, we will talk about how an automatic chemistry analyzer works.
The following steps are listed below:
Ø Specimen Preparation and Identification
Ø Specimen Measurement and Delivery
Ø Reagent Systems and Delivery
Ø Chemical Reaction Phase
Ø Reaction Time
Ø Measurement Phase
In most laboratories, the preparation of samples for analysis of chemistry analyzer has always been a manual process. Clotting time (if serum is used), centrifugation, and transfer of the sample to the analysis cup (unless the main test tube is used for sampling) can cause delays and costs in the testing process.
Most instruments use round turntables or rectangular racks as sample containers for storing disposable sample cups or main sample tubes in the loading area or pipetting area of the chemistry analyzer. Transfer the sample or reference substance into the analysis tube or test tube. Slots on trays or shelves are usually numbered to help sample identification. The pallet or rack moves automatically in steps at a position at a pre-selected speed. The speed determines the number of samples to be analyzed per hour. For convenience, the instrument can determine the slot number containing the last sample and terminate the analysis after that sample. The microprocessor of the instrument saves the number of samples in the memory, and only sucks in the position containing the sample.
Reagents can be divided into liquid or dry systems for automatic chemistry analyzers. Liquid reagents can be purchased in bulk containers or unit-dose packages for statistical testing on some analyzers. There are various packaging forms for dry reagents. They may be bottled, freeze-dried powders that need to be reconstituted with water or buffer. Unless the manufacturer provides a thinner, the quality of the water available in the laboratory is very important. The second and only type of dry reagent is the multi-layer dry chemical slide of the VITROS chemistry analyzer. These slides have a thin layer of dry reagents under the microscope and are mounted on a plastic holder. The size and thickness of the slides are similar to stamps.
This stage includes mixing, separation, incubation and reaction time. In most separate chemistry analyzers, chemical reactants are stored in separate mobile containers that can be used once or repeatedly. These reaction vessels can also be used as cuvettes for optical analysis. If the cuvette is reusable, a washing station is set up immediately after the reading station to clean and dry these containers. This arrangement allows the analyzer to run continuously without changing the cuvette.
In chemical reactions, it may be necessary to separate undesirable components from the sample that interfere with the analysis before introducing other reagents into the system. Proteins cause great interference in many analyses. One way to not separate the protein is to use a very high reagent-to-sample ratio (the sample is highly diluted) so that the spectrophotometer will not feel any turbidity caused by the precipitated protein. Another method is to shorten the reaction time to eliminate slower reaction interference.
Before the spectrophotometer takes an optical reading, the reaction time may depend on the transfer rate through the system to the "reading" station, the amount of timing reagent additions with a mobile or fixed reaction chamber, or a combination of the two processes. Before performing spectrophotometric analysis on the product, an environment conducive to the completion of the reaction must be maintained for a long enough time. Time is a clear limit. In order to maintain the advantages of rapid multiplex analysis, the instrument must produce results as quickly as possible.
After the reaction is complete, the products formed must be quantified. Almost all available measurement systems have been used, such as ultraviolet, fluorescence, and flame photometry; ion-specific electrodes; gamma counters; and photometers. However, the most common are visible and ultraviolet spectrophotometry, although adaptations of traditional fluorescence measurement methods, such as fluorescence polarization, chemiluminescence, and bioluminescence, have become popular.
Now you know the whole process of a chemistry analyzer.
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