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Types of Ventilators

Views:0     Author:Site Editor     Publish Time: 2021-04-12      Origin:Site

Mechanical ventilation is a treatment method that helps patients breathe when they find that they have difficulty breathing or cannot breathe independently. The mechanical ventilator pushes the airflow into the patient's lungs to help them breathe.Mechanical ventilation possible be the invasive ventilation in the intensive care unit of a hospital, inserting a catheter into the patient’s airway, or It can be used for non-invasive ventilation of patients with dyspnea at home. Let's know more about it.


The following knowledge points are listed below:

Why is a ventilator used

The two types of ventilators

How does a negative-pressure ventilator work

How does a positive-pressure ventilator work

1. Why is a ventilator used

The mechanical ventilator completes the work of patients' breathing, so that their bodies can rest and recover. Use mechanical fans:

(1) As a short-term respiratory aid in surgery

(2) Long-term treatment of critically ill patients

(3) People who have difficulty breathing at home

In the past two decades, with the integration of ventilator and computer technology, several new mechanical ventilation methods have emerged. This increasingly helps doctors meet individual requirements for mechanical ventilation.

2. The two types of ventilators

Mechanical ventilation was first used in 1929. The two types of mechanical ventilation are

(1) Positive pressure ventilation: Push air into the lungs.

(2) Negative pressure ventilation: draws air into the lungs by expanding and contracting the chest.

The early ventilator was a negative pressure ventilator. Negative pressure ventilation is rarely used now.

(1) Iron lung: The first mechanical ventilator, a metal cylinder, completely wrapped the patient to the neck.

(2) Breastplate: A small shell that can be tied to the patient's chest to generate negative pressure.

Positive pressure ventilator was developed in the early 1950s to treat polio patients with respiratory paralysis. These ventilators blow air into the patient's lungs through a tube. They may be invasive or non-invasive.

(1) Invasive ventilation

Tracheal intubation: A tube is inserted into the patient's airway (trachea) through the mouth or nose. 

Tracheostomy: Insert the trachea into the airway.

(2) Non-invasive ventilation

The non-invasive mechanical ventilator is equipped with a mask and can be used at home. These three are

a. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP): Provides constant and stable air pressure.

b. Automatically adjust (adjustable) positive airway pressure (APAP): change the air pressure according to the breathing mode.

c. Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP): delivers air of different pressures for inhalation and exhalation.

3. How does a negative-pressure ventilator work

(1) Iron lung

The iron lung in the past forced the chest cavity to expand and contract by adjusting the air pressure in the chamber that surrounded the body to the neck. The vacuum pump generates negative pressure in the iron lung chamber to expand the patient's chest and inhale air. When the negative pressure is released, the patient's chest will sit back and air will be expelled.

The negative pressure generated in the room also affects the stomach and heart, which is a problem of iron lungs. The iron lung ventilator also limits the patient's mobility and makes nursing care difficult.

(2) Breastplate

The breastplate, later developed, is a small bladder-fitting shell that is tied to the patient's chest. The breastplate exerts negative pressure to stimulate the expansion and contraction of the chest. Few people today use breastplates. It is a suitable choice for patients with neuromuscular diseases, but not for lying patients.


4. How does a positive-pressure ventilator work

Positive pressure ventilation is a commonly used mechanical ventilation method in hospitals. The positive pressure ventilator pushes air into the patient's airway. The ventilator continuously blows and stops according to a preset cycle, so that the lungs receive oxygen and discharge carbon dioxide. Positive pressure ventilator

(1) Volume control: Even if higher airway pressure is required, a preset amount of air can be delivered to the patient's trachea. When the airflow stops, the chest cavity will recoil and expel air.

(2) Pressure control: deliver air until the airway pressure limit is reached, and the valve opens to discharge air. The amount of air delivered depends on airway resistance and lung capacity.

(3) Dual control: Combines the advantages of volume control and pressure control, and provides airflow according to the needs and responses of patients.


Now you get a clear understanding of the types of ventilators now. Our main product including Medical Furniture, In vitro Diagnostics, contact us now!




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