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A chemistry analyzer, also called a clinical chemistry analyzer, is used to measure metabolites in biological samples such as blood or urine. Research on these fluids makes it possible to diagnose many diseases. An example of the use of this chemistry analyzer is the measurement of urine creatinine to assess the filtration capacity of the kidney.In this article we will find more about the chemistry analyzer.
The following knowledge points are listed below:
Techniques that the chemistry analyzer use
Criteria that used to assess the performance of a chemistry analyzer
How are reagents and samples managed
What options are available for a chemistry analyzer
There are several methods of analysis and measurement for the chemistry analyzer. They can be divided into two categories:
This is the most commonly used method. Mix the sample with the appropriate reagents to produce a color-producing reaction. The concentration of the analyte determines the intensity of the color obtained.
The light source is projected onto the sample at the appropriate wavelength, and a photodetector placed on the other side of the sample measures the amount of light absorbed. This is directly related to the concentration of the analyte in the sample. There are several principles: absorptivity (the ability of a medium to absorb light), turbidity (measurement of the turbidity produced by a substance suspended in a liquid medium), fluorescence (a substance absorbs light at one wavelength, and another Wavelength emission light) principle.
Direct potential method: Ion selective electrode (ISE) is widely used, mainly for ion analysis in samples. This method can be used to determine Na+, K+, CI- and Li+ plasma. The ion exchange membrane is a sensor that can determine the ion concentration in a solution by measuring the current passing through the ion selective membrane.
This method also uses ion selective electrodes. It allows high throughput and is most commonly used in centralized laboratories. Unlike the direct potential method, it needs to be diluted in advance, and the result is expressed in molarity.
The chemistry analyzer can provide several measurement principles.
The following criteria can be used to evaluate the performance of the equipment:
The chemistry analyzer can be automatic or semi-automatic. In the case of a fully automatic chemistry analyzer, samples and reagents are prepared in advance, and then put into the equipment for management and analysis from A to Z. You can establish a test chain and adjust the rate. The automatic chemistry analyzer is more suitable for large and medium-sized laboratories that need to analyze a large number of samples.
On the other hand, semi-automatic devices are more designed for smaller laboratories or medical practices that process smaller volumes of samples. In these cases, the chemistry analyzer must set up each test separately, so the test speed is slow and cannot be performed automatically.
Rate: This is the number of samples analyzed per hour. The use of ion-selective electrodes greatly improves the detection rate (see the question of the type of measurement technology used by the biochemical analyzer).
This provides a high degree of flexibility, especially for laboratories and hospitals with intermediate and advanced activities. They are facing more and more constraints and must increase productivity while reducing processing time. Through random access, samples can be loaded randomly and continuously, and results can be obtained on a patient-by-patient basis as soon as possible. This allows the rate to reach interesting numbers, such as 800 photometric tests per hour.
This will be determined by the capacity of the chemistry analyzer. The semi-automatic chemistry analyzer analyzes only one sample at a time. On the other hand, the structure of the automatic device is different, there are two fuel tanks, including:
Shelves for reagents. They vary according to the type of sample and the analysis to be performed.
The shelf for the sample to be analyzed. Depending on the diagnosis (medical specialty): blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.
An automated arm moves the reagents from the test tube to the sample tube with the required dose for analysis.
An important point to consider is the volume of reagents and samples required by the chemistry analyzer to perform the test. This will have an impact on operating costs. In the long run, equipment that requires large amounts of reagents will be more expensive.
Systems with random access modes (see Performance Issues of Biochemical Analyzers) have a more flexible sample management mode and save time, while reducing the risk of human error due to manual processing. The barcode tube system allows the equipment to manage tests comprehensively, efficiently and reliably.
Some models provide a wider range of analysis types than traditional chemistry analyzers. It can be used in immunology, endocrinology, toxicology, oncology and other majors. There are many models on the market that can perform up to 100 types of analysis. In order to optimize the workflow, a system for processing clinical chemistry and immunoassay samples at the same time is also provided. Among other things, this eliminates the need to process samples between modules.
That's all about the chemistry analyzer.
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